Analysis of Smart Water Meter Temporal Resolution on Water End-Use Classification
Presented by Zahara Heydari (advisor Prof. Ashlynn Stillwell)
Water monitoring in households provides occupants and utilities with key information to support water conservation and efficiency in the residential sector. High costs, intrusiveness, and practical complexity limit appliance-level monitoring via sub-meters on every water-consuming end use in households. Non-intrusive machine learning methods have emerged as promising techniques to analyze observed data collected by a single meter at the inlet of the house and estimate the disaggregated contribution of each water end use. While fine temporal resolution data allow for more accurate end-use disaggregation, there is an inevitable increase in the amount of data that needs to be stored and analyzed. To explore this tradeoff and advance previous studies based on synthetic data, we first collected 1 s resolution indoor water use data from a residential single-point smart water metering system installed at a four-person household, as well as ground-truth end-use labels based on a water diary recorded over a 4-week study period. Second, we trained a supervised machine learning model (random forest classifier) to classify six water end-use categories across different temporal resolutions and two different model calibration scenarios. Finally, we evaluated the results based on three different performance metrics (micro, weighted, and macro F1 scores). Our findings show that data collected at 1- to 5-s intervals allow for better end-use classification (weighted F-score higher than 0.85), particularly for toilet events; however, certain water end uses (e.g., shower and washing machine events) can still be predicted with acceptable accuracy even at coarser resolutions, up to 1 min, provided that these end-use categories are well represented in the training dataset. Overall, our study provides insights for further water sustainability research and widespread deployment of smart water meters.
Mitigation Banking: An Economic Solution to Environmental Restoration
Presented by Christian Groenewold
Mitigation banking is a federally regulated practice that merges environmental restoration and economic incentives. Mitigation banking utilizes a "no net loss" approach to wetland development that ensures the total area of wetlands in the U.S. remains the same. In one case study, the process of establishing a mitigation bank from start to finish is examined and the analysis of certain metrics prove the success of the project.