Title: 𐐔𐐯𐑅𐐨𐑉𐐯𐐻 𐐻𐐯𐐿𐑅𐐻𐑅 𐐰𐑆 𐐪 𐑀𐐴𐐼 𐐻𐐭 𐐏𐐮𐐭𐐻𐐪 𐐆𐑍𐑀𐑊𐐮𐑇
Deseret texts as a guide to Utah English
𐐜 𐑋𐐲𐑉𐑀𐐯𐑉 /ɔ/--> /ɑ/ 𐐺𐐨𐑁𐐬𐑉 /𐑉/ 𐐮𐑆 𐐪 𐑉𐐯𐑊𐐰𐐻𐐮𐑂𐑊𐐮 𐐶𐐯𐑊-𐑌𐐬𐑌 𐑁𐐨𐐻𐐷𐐮𐐭𐑉 𐐱𐑂 𐐏𐐮𐐭𐐻𐐪 𐐆𐑍𐑀𐑊𐐮𐑇. 𐐜 𐐔𐐯𐑅𐐨𐑉𐐯𐐻 𐐈𐑊𐑁𐐰𐐺𐐯𐐻 𐐶𐐱𐑆 𐐮𐑌𐑂𐐯𐑌𐐻𐐯𐐼 𐐺𐐴 𐐣𐐫𐑉𐑋𐐲𐑌 𐑊𐐨𐐼𐐯𐑉𐑆 𐐰𐑌𐐼 𐐮𐑌𐐻𐐯𐑊𐐯𐐿𐐻𐐷𐐮𐐭𐐲𐑊𐑆; 𐐮𐐻𐑅 𐐷𐐮𐐭𐑅 𐐶𐐱𐑆 𐑌𐐯𐑂𐐯𐑉 𐐶𐐴𐐼𐑅𐐹𐑉𐐯𐐼. 𐐜 𐐰𐑊𐐹𐐸𐐰𐐺𐐩𐐻 𐐮𐑌𐐿𐑊𐐮𐐭𐐼𐐯𐐼 𐑀𐑉𐐰𐑁𐐮𐐿 𐐼𐐮𐑅𐐻𐐮𐑍𐐿𐑇𐐲𐑌𐑆 𐐺𐐨𐐻𐐶𐐨𐑌 𐐹𐐩𐑉𐑆 𐐱𐑂 𐐺𐐰𐐿 𐑂𐐵𐐯𐑊𐑆 𐑄𐐰𐐻 𐐸𐐰𐑂 𐑅𐐮𐑌𐑅 𐑋𐐲𐑉𐐾𐐼 𐐮𐑌 𐐝𐐻𐐰𐑌𐐼𐐲𐑉𐐼 𐐈𐑋𐐯𐑉𐐮𐐿𐐲𐑌 𐐆𐑍𐑀𐑊𐐮𐑇. 𐐈𐑆 𐐪 𐑋𐐨𐑌𐑆 𐐱𐑂 𐑁𐐲𐑌𐐯𐐻𐐮𐐿𐐲𐑊𐐮 𐑉𐐯𐑌𐐼𐐯𐑉𐐮𐑍 𐑄 𐐼𐐮𐑅𐐻𐐮𐑍𐐿𐑇𐐲𐑌 𐐺𐐨𐐻𐐶𐐨𐑌 𐑂𐐵𐐯𐑊𐑆 𐑄𐐰𐐻 𐐶𐐲𐑉 𐐹𐐯𐑉𐐸𐐰𐐹𐑅 𐐫𐑊𐑉𐐯𐐼𐐮 𐐮𐑌 𐑄 𐐹𐑉𐐱𐑅𐐯𐑅 𐐱𐑂 𐑋𐐲𐑉𐐾𐐮𐑍, 𐐔𐐯𐑅𐐨𐑉𐐯𐐻 𐐈𐑊𐑁𐐰𐐺𐐯𐐻 𐐻𐐯𐐿𐑅𐐻𐑅 𐐿𐐲𐑋𐐹𐐬𐑆𐐼 𐐮𐑌 𐑄 1860𐑆 𐑋𐐩 𐐹𐑉𐐨𐑆𐐯𐑌𐐻 𐑅𐐲𐑋 𐐿𐑊𐐮𐐭𐑆 𐐰𐑆 𐐻𐐭 𐑄 𐐼𐐨𐑂𐐯𐑊𐐲𐐹𐑋𐐯𐑌𐐻 𐐱𐑂 𐑄 𐐿𐐫𐑉𐐼-𐐿𐐪𐑉𐐼 𐑋𐐲𐑉𐐾𐐯𐑉 𐐮𐑌 𐐏𐐮𐐭𐐻𐐪. 𐐌 𐐹𐑉𐐨𐑆𐐯𐑌𐐻 𐐯𐑂𐐮𐐼𐐯𐑌𐑅 𐑁𐑉𐐱𐑋 𐑄 𐐔𐐯𐑅𐐨𐑉𐐯𐐻 𐐈𐑊𐑁𐐰𐐺𐐯𐐻 𐐒𐐳𐐿 𐐱𐑂 𐐣𐐫𐑉𐑋𐐲𐑌 𐐰𐑌𐐼 𐑄 𐑉𐐴𐐻𐐮𐑍𐑆 𐐱𐑂 𐐣𐐫𐑉𐑋𐐲𐑌 𐐼𐐴𐐲𐑉𐐮𐑅𐐻 𐐣𐐰𐑉𐐨𐐲𐑌 𐐖. 𐐟𐐯𐑊𐐻𐐲𐑌. 𐐜𐐨𐑆 𐑉𐐴𐐻𐐮𐑍𐑆 𐐮𐑌𐐼𐐨𐐼 𐐹𐑉𐐨𐑆𐐲𐑉𐑂 𐐻𐑉𐐰𐑌𐑅𐐿𐑉𐐮𐐹𐑇𐐲𐑌𐐲𐑊 𐐯𐑂𐐮𐐼𐐯𐑌𐑅 𐐱𐑂 𐑂𐐰𐑉𐐨𐐲𐐺𐑊 𐑂𐐵𐐯𐑊 𐐿𐐶𐐪𐑊𐐮𐐻𐐮 𐐮𐑌 𐐹𐑉𐐨-𐑉𐐬𐐻𐐮𐐿 𐐿𐐱𐑌𐐻𐐯𐐿𐑅𐐻𐑅, 𐐮𐑌 𐑅𐐲𐑋 𐐿𐐩𐑅𐐯𐑆 𐑅𐐲𐐾𐐯𐑅𐐻𐐮𐑂 𐐱𐑂 𐑄 𐑋𐐲𐑉𐐾𐐯𐑉. 𐐐𐐶𐐴𐑊 𐑄𐐮𐑅 𐐮𐑆 𐐺𐐴 𐑌𐐬 𐑋𐐨𐑌𐑆 𐐿𐐲𐑌𐐿𐑊𐐮𐐭𐑅𐐮𐑂 𐐯𐑂𐐮𐐼𐐯𐑌𐑅 𐐱𐑂 𐑄 𐐻𐐴𐑋𐐮𐑍 𐐫𐑉 𐐼𐐮𐑁𐐷𐐭𐑈𐐲𐑌 𐐱𐑂 𐑄 𐐿𐐫𐑉𐐼-𐐿𐐪𐑉𐐼 𐑋𐐲𐑉𐐾𐐯𐑉, 𐐮𐐻 𐐹𐑉𐐬𐑂𐐴𐐼𐑆 𐐹𐐱𐑆𐐮𐐻𐐮𐑂 𐐯𐑂𐐮𐐼𐐯𐑌𐑅 𐐱𐑂 𐑉𐐨𐑊𐐩𐐻𐐯𐐼 𐑂𐐰𐑉𐐨𐐲𐐺𐐮𐑊𐐮𐐻𐐮 𐐮𐑌 𐐏𐐮𐐭𐐻𐐪 𐐰𐐻 𐐲𐐹𐑉𐐱𐐿𐑅𐐮𐑋𐐲𐐻𐑊𐐮 𐑄 𐑉𐐴𐐻 𐐻𐐴𐑋 𐑁𐐫𐑉 𐑄 𐑋𐐲𐑉𐐾𐐯𐑉 𐐻𐐬 𐐸𐐰𐑂 𐐻𐐩𐐿𐑌 𐐹𐑊𐐩𐑅.
The merger /ɔ/--> /ɑ/ before /r/ is a relatively well-known feature of Utah English. The Deseret Alphabet was invented by Mormon leaders and intellectuals; its use was never widespread. The alphabet included graphic distinctions between pairs of back vowels that have since merged in Standard American and Utah English. As a means of phonetically rendering the distinction between vowels that were perhaps already in the process of merging, Deseret Alphabet texts composed in the 1860s may present some clues as to the development of the CORD–CARD merger in Utah. I present evidence from the Deseret Alphabet Book of Mormon and the writings of Mormon diarist Marion J. Shelton. These writings indeed preserve transcriptional evidence of variable vowel quality in pre-rhotic contexts, in some cases suggestive of the merger. While this is by no means conclusive evidence of the timing or diffusion of the CORD–CARD merger, it provides positive evidence of related variability in Utah at approximately the right time for the merger to have taken place.