Theoretical Guarantees for Permutation-Equivariant Quantum Neural Networks.
Abstract: Despite the great promise of quantum machine learning models, there are several challenges one must overcome before unlocking their full potential. For instance, models based on quantum neural networks (QNNs) can suffer from excessive local minima and barren plateaus in their training landscapes. Recently, the nascent field of geometric quantum machine learning (GQML) has emerged as a solution to some of those issues. The key insight of GQML is that one should design architectures, such as equivariant QNNs, encoding the symmetries of the problem at hand. Here, we focus on problems with permutation Sn symmetry, and show how to build Sn-equivariant QNNs. We provide an analytical study of their performance, proving that they do not suffer from barren plateaus, quickly reach overparametrization, and can generalize well from small amounts of data. Our results provide the first theoretical guarantees for equivariant QNNs, thus indicating the extreme power and potential of GQML.