The gravitational form factors (GFFs) are an elegant way to describe the structure of nucleons and nuclei. Their Fourier transform allow a description of the spatial distribution of the mass, angular momentum, pressure and shear forces densities for both quarks and gluons in the nucleon. The GFFs have been the target of an intensive investigation at Jefferson Lab and form the basis of nucleon and nuclei partonic structure studies at the future EIC. In this talk I will focus on the recent results of 𝐽/𝜓 production near threshold at Jefferson Lab to determine the gluonic gravitational form factors and discuss the caveats of their extraction in the threshold region. I'll also discuss the future complementary measurements of Υ at the EIC critical to access the trace anomaly and gain insight into the origin of the proton mass.