We introduce the concepts of a symmetry-protected sign problem and symmetry-protected magic to study the complexity of symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases of matter. In particular, we say a state has a symmetry-protected sign problem or symmetry-protected magic, if finite-depth quantum circuits composed of symmetric gates are unable to transform the state into a non-negative real wave function or stabilizer state, respectively. We prove that states belonging to certain SPT phases have these properties, as a result of their anomalous symmetry action at a boundary. For example, we find that one-dimensional Z2XZ2 SPT states (e.g. cluster state) have a symmetry-protected sign problem, and two-dimensional Z2 SPT states (e.g. Levin-Gu state) have both a symmetry-protected sign problem and symmetry-protected magic. We also comment on the relation of a symmetry-protected sign problem to the computational wire property of one-dimensional SPT states and speculate about the greater implications of our results for measurement-based quantum computing.