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GGT Seminar: Categorifying the four color theorem

Event Type
Seminar/Symposium
Sponsor
Department of Mathematics
Location
Altgeld 143
Date
Feb 22, 2024   11:00 am  
Speaker
Scott Baldridge, LSU
Contact
Jake Rasmussen
E-Mail
rasmusj@illinois.edu
Views
87
Originating Calendar
Groups, Geometry, and Topology Calendar

Abstract: The four color theorem states that each bridgeless planar graph has a proper face coloring. It can be generalized to certain types of CW complexes of any closed surface for any number of colors, i.e., one looks for a coloring of the 2-cells (faces) of the complex with $m$ colors so that whenever two 2-cells are adjacent to a 1-cell (edge), they are labeled different colors.

In this talk, I show how to categorify the $m$-color polynomial of a surface with a CW complex. This polynomial is based upon Roger Penrose’s seminal 1971 paper on abstract tensor systems and can be thought of as the ``Jones polynomial’’ for CW complexes. The homology theory that results from this categorification is called the bigraded $m$-color homology and is based upon a topological quantum field theory (that will be suppressed from this talk due to time). The construction of this homology shares some similar features to the construction of Khovanov homology—it has a hypercube of states, multiplication and comultiplication maps, etc. Most importantly, the homology is the $E_1$-page of a spectral sequence whose $E_\infty$-page has s a basis that can be identified with proper $m$-face colorings, that is, each successive page of the sequence provides better approximations of m-face colorings than the last. Since it can be shown that the $E_1$-page is never zero, it is safe to say that a non-computer-based proof of the four color theorem resides in studying this spectral sequence! (This is joint work with Ben McCarty.)

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