Analyzing the Rydberg-based omg architecture for 171Yb nuclear spins
Ultracold atoms trapped in optical tweezers have emerged as a potent tool for quantum information science, spanning a variety of applications like quantum simulation, quantum computing, metrology etc. Much of the scientific research using tweezer arrays done to date has been with alkali atoms, which have one valence electrons. In recent years, the tweezer toolbox has expanded to include the alkaline earth(-like) atoms (AEAs). The AEAs have two valence electrons, offering a richer atomic structure which can be exploited to achieve better control in a tweezer over the alkalis. In addition, the ground and metastable clock states do not have any fine-structure, thus they can be encoded with nuclear qubits that have seconds-scale coherence time. Entanglement can be generated quickly via a strong dipole coupling from the clock state to a Rydberg state. This unique atomic structure enables us to extend the omg (“optical, metastable, and ground”) architecture from a recent trapped ion proposal to neutral fermionic AEAs, specifically ytterbium-171 (171Yb). We analyze the S-series Rydberg states of 171Yb with Multichannel Quantum Defect Theory (MQDT) and confirm that the 3S1 F=3/2 manifold is suitable for entanglement generation on the nuclear qubit. Moreover, we study the multilevel dynamics of the ground-clock and clock-Rydberg transitions and show that we can achieve gate fidelities exceeding 0.99 at experimentally realistic conditions. Our findings suggest that the structure of 171Yb is indeed well suited for high-fidelity quantum circuits.
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