Quantum money is a quantum cryptographic protocol that allows for the
creation of verifiable but uncopyable states. The requirements are
A) One player (the mint) must be able to produce a quantum money state,
along with a serial number.
B) The serial number gives a verification test, and the quantum money
state must pass this test with very high probability.
C) If some aspiring counterfeiter has the quantum money state and knows
the verification test, they cannot create two quantum states that both
pass the verification test.
Quantum money was first proposed in 2009. Since then, several protocols
for quantum money have been proposed. We will discuss these protocols
and the underlying mechanisms by which they operate.
Peter Shor is Morss Professor of Applied Mathematics since 2003, and Chair of the Applied Mathematics Committee since 2015. He received the B.A. in mathematics from Caltech in 1981, and the Ph.D. in applied mathematics from MIT in 1985, under the direction of Tom Leighton. Following a postdoctoral fellowship at MSRI, he joined AT&T. He was a member of its Research staff, 1986-2003. He joined the MIT faculty in applied mathematics as full professor in 2003. Professor Shor's research interests are in theoretical computer science: currently on algorithms, quantum computing, computational geometry and combinatorics. In 1998, Peter Shor received the Nevanlinna Prize and the International Quantum Communication Award. He also received the Dickson Prize in Science from Carnegie-Mellon in 1998. He was awarded the Gödel Prize of the ACM and a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship in 1999. He received the King Faisal International Prize in Science in 2002, and was named one of Caltech's Distinguished Alumni in 2007. He is a member of the National Academy of Science (2002), and fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (2011). In 2017, Professor Shor received the Dirac Medal of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics. He also received the 2017 IEEE Information Theory Society Paper Award, jointly with Charles Bennett, Igor Devetak, Aram Harrow, and Andreas Winter for the paper "The Quantum Reverse Shannon Theorem and Resource Tradeoffs for Simulating Quantum Channels" which appeared in the IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 2926–2959, May 2014. In 2018, Shor received the IEEE Eric E. Sumner Award, for Outstanding Contributions to Communications Technology. He also received the 2018 Micius Quantum Prize in April 2019. As of 2020, Shor is a Member of the National Academy of Engineering.