Studies have shown the importance of early life conditions on physical and cognitive health among older adults. Research often describes this association as the “long-arm of childhood”. However, these studies have largely been developed on populations in high-income countries. Less is known about how childhood conditions are associated with later life health in low- and middle- income countries. Differences may arise from larger contextual factors that influence life course processes and pathways to healthy aging. This research will investigate how the long-arm of childhood is associated with several cardio-metabolic conditions among Older Brazilians and examine the different pathways that contribute to these differences.