This presentation will discuss autonomous systems in aerospace, and recent progress in the development and fielding of adaptive control systems. Autonomous systems have secured a unique and expanding role in commercial and defense applications. They are changing our world. The talk will discuss some of the history that has led us to where we are today, and some of the new systems and challenges we face going forward. Aerospace and the oil and gas industries offer some of the greatest control challenges faced by the control community. Unstable, non-minimum phase system dynamics, and models that are highly uncertain and expensive to learn/measure. This talk will also present some recent progress in developing and using robust and adaptive control methods for flight and drilling operations.