Identification of foods and nutrients that promote human cognitive function has the potential to have a lasting impact on quality of life for all populations. However, a perpetual challenge in the field of nutritional neuroscience has been the limited knowledge of specific dietary components with the sensitivity to both dietary consumption and cognitive function. The macular of the retina preferentially accumulates plant pigments known as carotenoids. Specifically, the xanthophyll carotenoid lutein not only contributes to macular pigmentation, but also disproportionately accumulates in the human brain. This presentation will highlight the links between macular lutein status and cognitive control and relational memory in children and adults.