The EU response after the Arab Spring was to announce a new and more ambitious European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) with the aim to make the ENP more objective and effective. The new ENP is based three axles; Money, Market access and Mobility. The few papers that have been produced so far question the effectiveness of the 3Ms, but more specific accounts of the revised policies are still lacking. The aim of this paper is to fill this gap in the existing debate by analyzing the implementation of the Tunisian and Egyptian ENP Action Plans (before and after the Arab Spring). More specifically, this paper uses Putnam’s two-level game analysis in order to measure the impact of the ENP reforms in the agricultural and industrial sector of these countries. The main point here is to evaluate the ENP changes by understanding the role of the social forces and their interaction with statesmen, to realize the win-sets in both regions and to see the interest groups that benefit and lose from the new policies. Particular attention will be given to the contribution of the ENP to the development of a dual agricultural market in these countries and to the effects of standardization for the North African businesses. The paper explains the commercial and political gains for the participants and argues that the ideas of policy makers have not changed substantially after the Arab Spring. Under these conditions, the chances for the ENP to become a successful foreign policy strategy are slim.
Dr. Christos Kourtelis completed his undergraduate degree in European Studies in Greece at the Hellenic Open University (distinction). He then continued his studies at the LSE, where he obtained an MSc in development studies. His PhD for the integration of the North African countries into the EU market was awarded with no corrections in 2014. His research interests include the political economy of the Euro-Mediterranean relations, the EU’s development policies, the aid policies of the EU member states, the political economy of regional integration of the MENA countries. Christos works a teaching fellow at King’s College London, where he teaches modules in EU foreign policies and Global Politics. In the past he has worked for the European Commission and he has taught several modules related to EU politics, international relations, international political economy, Middle East politics and comparative politics at the University of Westminster and at Birkbeck College.