Abstract: In the last two decades the study of nucleon structure has shifted from a one-dimensional picture to exploring the dynamic three-dimensional structure of partons within the nucleon. In the transverse-momentum-dependent framework, nonperturbative parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions explicitly carry dependence on partonic transverse momentum rather than only the collinear momentum of the parton with respect to the hadron. The recent interest in the transverse structure of the proton has largely been motivated by the novel phenomenological consequences that have been predicted for these nonperturbative functions, in particular regarding the role that color charge plays in hard scattering processes. For example, factorization breaking has been predicted in hadronic collisions where a final-state hadron is measured and the observable is sensitive to nonperturbative transverse momentum. This prediction has the interesting quantum mechanical consequence that partons are entangled via their color across colliding protons. In this talk I will discuss recent results sensitive to color entanglement effects in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions as well as the possible role that color plays in other emergent phenomena in high energy hadronic collisions.