Translation produces proteins in the cell that are the major determinants of cellular functions. The unexpected gap between the expression of the genome at the level of transcriptome and proteome demonstrates the pervasiveness and importance of translational regulation. Regulation at the translational level not only provides a fine-tuned control in gene expression, but also offers the cell an opportunity to rapidly respond to internal cellular cues and external stimuli without invoking nuclear events that involve transcription, messenger RNA processing and transport. In all organisms, translation is catalyzed in the ribosome, an extraordinary molecular machine in every living cell. Ribosome consists of two asymmetrical subunits that carry out different, but closely related functions. The small subunit (40S) decodes the genetic information in mRNAs, and the large subunit (60S) makes peptide bonds in proteins. Translation is a complex, multistep cellular process generally divided into four stages: initiation, elongation, termination and recycling. In each stage, the ribosome, assisted by transfer RNAs and translation factors, synthesizes cellular proteins with remarkable speed and accuracy. Here I will present molecular mechanisms we determined on translation initiation involving RNA-binding proteins and the 5’ un-translated regions (5’UTRs) of mRNA, termination and co-translational quality control using biochemistry, X-ray crystallography and single particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryoEM).